Appendix 1. A Sampling of Models of Southern Ocean Processes

Ice/mixed layer models

Hibler, W. D., III. 1979. A dynamic thermodynamic sea ice model. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 9: 815-846.

Lemke, P. 1987. A coupled one-dimensional sea ice-ocean model. J. Geophys. Res. 92: 13,164-13,172.

Lemke, P., W. B. Owens and W. D. Hibler, III. 1990. A coupled sea ice-mixed layer-pycnocline model for the Weddell Sea. J. Geophys. Res. 95: 9513-9525.

Owens, W. B. and P. Lemke. 1990. Sensitivity studies with a sea ice-mixed layer-pycnocline model in the Weddell Sea. J. Geophys. Res. 95: 9527-9538.

Stossel, A. and P. Lemke. 1990. Coupled sea ice-mixed layer simulations for the Southern Ocean. J. Geophys. Res. 95: 9539-9555.

Wind stress climatology

Trenberth, K.E., J.G. Olson and W.G. Large. 1989. A global ocean wind stress climatology based on ECMWF analyses, NCAR Technical Note, NCAR/TN-338+STR, 93 pp.

Trenberth, K.E., W.G. Large and J.G. Olson. 1990. The mean annual cycle in the global ocean wind stress. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 20: 1742-1760.

Hydrographic atlases

Olbers, D., V. Gouretski, G. Seiss and J. Schroter. 1992. Hydrographic Atlas of the Southern Ocean, Alfred Wegener Institute, Bremerhaven, Germany, 17 pp., 82 plates.

FRAM model

FRAM Group. 1991. An eddy-resolving model of the Southern Ocean, EOS Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union 169: 174-175.

Webb, D. J., P. D. Killworth, A. Coward and S. Thompson. 1991. The FRAM Atlas of the Southern Ocean, Natural Environmental Research Council, Swindon, U.K., 67 pp.

Global PE models

Bryan, K. 1969. A numerical method for the study of the circulation of the World Ocean. J. Comp. Phys. 4: 347-376. [GFDL model]

Semtner, A. J., Jr. 1974. An oceanic general circulation model with bottom topography, Numerical Simulation of Weather and Climate, Technical Report No. 9, Department of Meteorology, University of California, Los Angeles, 99 pp.

Semtner, A. J., Jr. and R. M. Chervin. 1988. A simulation of the global ocean circulation with resolved eddies. J. Geophys. Res. 93: 15,502-15,522.

Semtner, A. J., Jr. and R. M. Chervin. 1992. Ocean general circulation from a global eddy-resolving model. J. Geophys. Res. 97: 5493-5550.

Regional PE models

Haidvogel, D. B., J. L. Wilkin and R. Young. 1991. A semi-spectral primitive equation circulation model using vertical sigma and orthogonal curvilinear horizontal coordinates. J. Comp. Phys. 94: 151-185. [SPEM]

Blumberg, A.F. and G.L. Mellor. 1987. A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model. In: Three Dimensional Coastal Ocean Models, Vol. 4, (N. Heaps, ed.) American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, 208pp. [Princeton Ocean Model]

Layer PE

Bleck, R. and L.T. Smith. 1990. A wind-driven isopycnic coordinate model of the north and equatorial Atlantic Ocean. I. Model development and supporting experiments. J. Geophys. Res. 95: 3272-3285.

Oberhuber, J.M. 1993. Simulation of the Atlantic circulation with a coupled sea ice - mixed layer - isopycnal general circulation model. Part I. Model description. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 23: 808-829.

Mixed layer models

Martin, P.J. 1985. Simulations of the mixed layer at OWS November and Papa with several models. J. Geophys. Res. 90: 903-916.

Large, W.G., J.C. McWilliams, and S.C. Doney. 1994. Oceanic vertical mixing: A review and a model with a nonlocal boundary layer parameterization. Rev. Geophys. 32: 363-403.

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