Albers, W. D., and P. J. Anderson. 1985. Diet of Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus, and predation on the northern pink shrimp, Pandalus borealis, in Pavlof Bay, Alaska. U. S. Fish. Bull., 83, 601-610.

Allen, M. J. and G. B. Smith. 1988. Atlas and zoogeography of common fishes in the Bering Sea and Northeastern Pacific. NOAA Tech. Rept. NMFS 66. 151pp.

Anonymous 1993. Our Living Oceans. Report on the Status of U.S. Living Marine Resources, 1993. U.S. Department of Commerce. NMFS, 1335 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910. 156p.

Bailey, K. M., and L. Incze. 1985. El Niño and the early life history and recruitment of fishes in temperate marine waters. p 143-165 in W. S. Wooster and D. L. Fluharty (editors) El Niño North--Niño Effects in the Eastern Subarctic Pacific Ocean Wash. Sea Grant, Univ. of Wash., Seattle, WA.

Barth, J. A. 1995. Mesoscale variability generated by an unstable buoyancy-driven coastal current with application to the Alaska Coastal Current. In "Buoyancy Effects on Coastal Dynamics", edited by D. G. Aubrey, "Coastal and Estuarine Studies", to be submitted.

Baumgartner, T. R., A. Soutar, V. Ferreira-Bartrina. 1992. Reconstruction of the history of Pacific Sardine and northern anchovy populations over the past two millennia from sediments of the Santa Barbara basin, California. CalCOFI Rep., 33, 24-40.

Beamish, R. J. 1995. (editor) Climate Change and Northern Fish Populations. Can. Spec. Pub. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 121. 739 pp.

Beamish, R. J. , and G. A. McFarlane 1989. (editors) Effects of Ocean Variability on Recruitment and an Evaluation of Parameters Used in Stock Assessment Models. Can. Spec. Pub. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 108.

Beamish, R.J. and D.R. Bouillon. 1993. Pacific salmon production trends in relation to climate. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 50, 1002-1016.

Blau, S. F. 1986. Recent declines of red king crab (Paralithodes camtschatica) populations and reproductive conditions around the Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska. Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 92, 360-369.

Bograd, S. J., P. J. Stabeno and J. D. Schumacher. 1994. A census of mesoscale eddies in Shelikof Strait, Alaska, during 1989. J. Geophysical Res., 99, 18243-18254.

Bond, N.A., J.E. Overland and P. Turet. 1994. Spatial and temporal characteristics of the wind forcing of the Bering Sea. J. Clim., 7, 1119-1130.

Brasseur, P.P. 1991. A variational inverse method for the reconstruction of general circulation fields in the northern Bering Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 4891-4907.

Brasseur, P.P. and J. Haus. 1991. Application of a 3-D variational inverse model to the analysis of ecohydrodynamic data in the northern Bering and southern Chuckchi seas. J. Mar. Syst., 1, 383-401.

Brodeur, R. D., B. W. Frost, S. R. Hare, R. C. Francis, and W. J. Ingraham Jr. 1996. Interannual variations in zooplankton biomass in the Gulf of Alaska and covariation with California Current zooplankton. CalCOFI Reports, 37. In press.

Brodeur, R.D. and D.M. Ware. 1992. Long-term variability in zooplankton biomass in the Subarctic Pacific Ocean. Fish. Oceanogr., 1, 32-38.

Brodeur, R.D. and D.M. Ware. 1995. Interdecadal variability in distribution and catches of epipelagic nekton in the Northeast Pacific. pp. 329-356 in R. J. Beamish (editor) Climate Change and Northern Fish Populations. Can. Spec. Pub. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 121.

Cavalieri, D.J. and S. Martin, The contribution of Alaskan, Siberian, and Canadian coastal polynyas to the cold halocline layer of the Arctic Ocean J. Geophys. Res., 99, 18,343-18,362, 1994.

Chelton, D. B., P. A. Bernal, and J. A. McGowan. 1982. Large-scale interannual physical and biological interaction in the California Current. J. Mar. Res., 40, 1095-1125.

Chelton, D.B. and R.E. Davis. 1982. Monthly mean sea-level variability along the west coast of North America. J. Phys. Ocean., 12, 757-784.

Coachman L.K., 1993. On the flow field in the Chirikov Basin, Cont. Shelf Res., 13, 481-508.

Coachman L.K., 1986. Circulation, water masses, and fluxes on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. Cont. Shelf. Res., 5, 23-108.

Cokelet, E.D., M.L. Schall and D. Dougherty, 1996. ADCP-referenced geostrophic circulation in the Bering Sea basin, J. Phys. Oceanogr. (in press).

Cooney, R. T. and K. O. Coyle. 1982. Trophic implications of cross-shelf copepod distributions in the southeastern Bering Sea. Mar. Biol., 70, 198-196.

Cummins, P. F. 1989. A quasi-geostrophic circulation model of the Northeast Pacific. Part 2: Effects of topography and seasonal forcing. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 19, 1649-1668.

Cummins, P. F. And H. J. Freeland. 1993. Observations and modeling of wind-driven currents in the northeast Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 488-502.

Cummins, P. F. And L. A. Mysak. 1988. A quasi-geostrophic circulation model of the Northeast Pacific. Part I: A preliminary numerical experiment. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,18, 1179-1189.

Decker, M. B., G. L. Hunt, Jr., and G. V. Byrd, Jr. 1995. The relationships among sea-surface temperature, the abundance of juvenile walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma), and the reproductive performance and diets of seabirds at the Pribilof Islands, southeastern Bering Sea. pp. 425-437 in R. J. Beamish (editor) Climate Change and Northern Fish Populations. Can. Spec. Pub. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 121.

Dodimead, A. J., F. Favorite, T. Hirano. 1963. Salmon of the North Pacific Ocean - Part II. Review of oceanography of the subarctic Pacific region. Int. N. Pac. Fish. Comm. Bull., 13, 195p.

Dugdale, R. C. and J. J. Goering. 1967. Uptake of new and regenerated forms of nitrogen in primary productivity. Limnol. Oceanogr., 12, 196-206.

Favorite, F., A.J. Dodimead and K. Nasu, 1976. Oceanography of the Subarctic Pacific region, 1960-71, Int. N. Pac. Fish. Comm. Bull., 33, 187 pp.

Foreman, M. G. G., A. M. Baptista and R. A. Walters. 1992. Tidal model studies of particle trajectories around a shallow coastal bank. Atmosphere-Ocean, 30, 43-69

Foreman, M. G. G, R. F. Henry, R. A. Walters and V. A. Ballantyne. 1993. A finite element model for tides and resonance along the north coast of British Columbia. J. Geophys. Res., 98, 2509-2531.

Francis, R. C., S. R. Hare, A. B. Hollowed, and W. S. Wooster. In Review. Effects of interdecadal climate variability on the oceanic ecosystems of the northeast Pacific Ocean. J. Climate.

Francis, R.C. and S. R. Hare. 1994. Decadal-scale regime shifts in the large marine ecosystems of the North-east Pacific: a case for historical science. Fish. Oceanogr., 3, 279-291.

Frost, B.W. 1983. Interannual variation of zooplankton standing stock in the open Gulf of Alaska, p 146-157. In. W. S. Wooster (ed.) From Year to Year: Interannual Variability of the Environment and Fisheries of the Gulf of Alaska and eastern Bering Sea. Washington Sea Grant Publ., Univ. Washington.

Frost, B.W. 1993. A modeling study of processes regulating plankton standing stock and production in the open Subarctic Pacific Ocean. Prog. Oceanogr., 32, 17-56

Fulton, J.D. 1983. Seasonal and annual variations of net zooplankton at Ocean Station "P", 1956-1980. Can. Data Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 30, 811-815.

Gladyshev, S., Unpublished manuscript. The Soviet (Russian) research of the physical oceanography of the Bering Sea, 14 pp.

Graham, N. E.. 1994. Decadal-scale climate variability in the tropical and North Pacific during the 1970s and 1980s: Observations and model results. Climate Dynamics, 10, 135-162.

Graham, N.E. 1995. Simulation of recent global temperature trends. Science, 267, 666-671.

Hall, N. M. J., B. J. Hoskins, P. J. Valdes, and C. A. Senior. 1994. Storm tracks in a high-resolution GCM with doubled carbon dioxide. Quart. J. Royal Meteor. Soc., 120, 1209-1230.

Han, Y.J. And J.A. Galt. 1979. A numerical investigation of the Bering Sea circulation using a homogeneous model. NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL PMEL-15, 35pp.

Hannah, C.G., P.H. Leblond, W. R. Crawford and W. R. Budgell. 1991. Wind-driven depth-averaged circulation in Queen Charlotte Sound and Hecate Strait. Atmosphere-Ocean, 29, 712-736

Hare, S. R. and R. C. Francis. 1995. Climate change and salmon production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. p. 357-372. In R. J. Beamish (editor) Climate Change and Northern Fish Populations. Can. Spec. Pub. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 121.

Hatch, S. A. and G. A. Sanger. 1992. Puffins as samplers of juvenile pollock and other forage fish in the Gulf of Alaska. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 80, 1-14.

Heim, P. K. II, M. A. Johnson, J. J. O'Brien. 1992. The influence of the Alaskan Gyre on the coastal circulation in the Gulf of Alaska. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 17765-17775

Helle, J.H., and M.S. Hoffman. 1995. Size decline and older age at maturity of two chum salmon stocks in western North America, 1972-92, p. 245-260. In R.J. Beamish (ed.) Climate Change and northern fish populations. Can. Spec. Publ. Fish Aquat. Sci. 121.

Hermann, A. J. and P. J. Stabeno. 1996. An eddy resolving model of circulation on the western Gulf of Alaska shelf. I. Model development and sensitivity analyses. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 1129-1149.

Hollowed, A. B. and W. S. Wooster. 1992. Variability of winter ocean conditions and strong year classes of Northeast Pacific groundfish. ICES Mar. Sci. Symp., 195, 433-444.

Hollowed, A. B., C. W. Wilson, E. Brown and B. A. Megrey. 1994. Walleye Pollock. In Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation Report for the 1995 Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Fishery. North Pacific Fishery Management Council, P.O. Box 103136, Anchorage, AK 99510.

Hollowed, A. B. and W. S. Wooster. 1995. Decadal-scale variations in the eastern Subarctic Pacific: II. Response of Northeast Pacific fish stocks. p. 373-385. In R. J. Beamish (editor) Climate Change and Northern Fish Populations. Can. Spec. Pub. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 121.

Horel, J. D. and J. M. Wallace. 1981. Planetary-scale atmospheric phenomena associated with the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Weather Rev., 109, 813-829.

Hsieh, W.W. And W. G. Lee. 1989. A numerical model for the variability of the Northern Pacific ocean. pp.247-254 in R.J. Beamish and G.A. MacFarlane, eds., Effects of Ocean Variability on Recruitment and an Evaluation of Parameters Used in Stock Assessment Models, Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. no. 108.

Hunt, G. L., Jr., A. S. Kitaysky, M. B. Decker, D. E. Dragoo, A. M. Springer. In Press. Changes in the distribution and size of juvenile walleye pollock as indicated by seabird diets at the Pribilof Islands and by bottom trawl surveys in the Eastern Bering Sea, 1975-1993. In R. D. Brodeur, P. A. Livingson, T. R. Loughlin and A. B. Hollowed (editors). Ecology of Juvenile Walleye Pollock. NOAA Tech. Rept.

Hunt, G. L. Jr., M. B. Decker, A. Kitaysky. 1995. Fluctuations in the Bering Sea ecosystem as reflected in the reproductive ecology and diets of kittiwakes on the Pribilof Islands 1975-1991. In S. P. R. Greenstreet, M. L. Tasker (editors), Aquatic Predators and Their Prey. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.

Hurlburt, H. E., A. J. Wallcraft, Z. Sirkes and E. J. Metzger. 1992. Modeling the global and Pacific Oceans: on the path to eddy-resolving ocean prediction. Oceanography, 5, 9-18.

Ingraham, W.J. and R.K. Miyahara. 1988. Ocean surface current simulations in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. U.S. Dept. Commerce, NOAA Tech. Memo NMFS-F/NWC-130, 155pp.

Ingraham, W. J. , Jr., R. K. Reed, J. D. Schumacher and S. A. Macklin. 1991. Interannual variability of circulation in the Gulf of Alaska in relation to water properties and fisheries resources. Eos, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 72, 257-258.

Ishida, Y., S. Ito, M. Kaeriyama, S. McKinnell, and K. Nagasawa. 1993. Recent changes in age and size of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in the North Pacific and possible causes. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 50, 290-295.

Jiang, L. W.W. Hsieh and P.F. Cummins. 1995. Assimilating Geosat altimetric data into a quasi-geostrophic model of the subarctic Pacific. Atmos.-Oc. (submitted)

Kaeriyama, M. 1989. Aspects of salmon ranching in Japan. Physiol. Ecol. Japan, Spec. Vol. 1, 625-638.

Kantha, L.H. and G.L. Mellor. 1989. A two dimensional coupled ice-ocean model of the Bering Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 94, 10921-10935.

Kawasaki, T. 1991. Long-term variability in the pelagic fish populations, p. 47-60 in T. Kawasaki, S. Tanaka, Y. Toba, A. Taniguchi (editors) Long-term variability of pelagic fish populations and their environment. Pergamon Press, New York.

Khen, G.V., 1989. Oceanological conditions of the Bering Sea biological productivity, in: Proceeding of the International Scientific Symposium on Bering Sea Fisheries, NOAA Tech. Memo NMFS F/NWC-163 (available through NTIS), 404-414.

Kinder, T.H., L.K. Coachman and J.A. Galt, 1975. The Bering Slope Current system, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 5, 231-244.

Kinder, T.H., D.C. Chapman and J.A. Whitehead, Jr., 1986. Westward intensification of the mean circulation on the Bering Sea shelf, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 16, 1217-1229.

Kowalik, Z., J. L. Luick and T. C. Royer. 1994. On the dynamics of the Alaska Coastal Current. Cont. Shelf. Res., 14, 831-845.

Lagerloef, G.S. E., C. T. Swift and D. M. LeVine. 1995. Sea surface salinity: The next remote sensing challenge. Oceanography, 8, 44-50.

Larsen, J. 1992. Transport and heat flux of the Florida Current at 27°N derived from cross- stream voltages and profiling data: theory and observations. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A, 338, 169-236.

Latif, M and T. P. Barnett. 1994. Causes of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America. Science, 266, 634-637.

Lee, W.G., G. Holloway, W. W. Hsieh. 1992. Importance of bottom topography in the seasonal cycle of the North Pacific subarctic gyre. Atmosphere-Ocean, 30, 140-145.

Liu, S.-K. and J. J. Leendertse. 1990. Modeling the Alaskan Continental Shelf Waters. Final Report, Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP), Minerals Management Service, Vol. 70, 626pp.

Livingston, P. A. In review. Groundfish utilization of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma), Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi), and capelin (Mallotus villosus) resources in the Gulf of Alaska. Submitted to U.S. Fish. Bull.

Livingston, P. A. and R. D. Methot, In review. Incorporation of predation into a population assessment model of walleye pollock. Submitted to U.S. Fish. Bull.

Matear, R. J. 1993. Circulation within the ocean storms area located in the Northeast Pacific Ocean determined by inverse methods. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 648-658

McGowan, J. A. 1989. Pelagic ecology and pacific climate. AGUÑGeophysical Monograph, 55, 141-150.

McNally, G.J., W.C. Patzert, A.D. Kirwan, Jr. and A.L. Vastano, 1983. The near-surface circulation of the North Pacific using satellite tracked drifting buoys, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 7505-7518.

Megrey, B. A., A. B. Hollowed, S. R. Hare, S. A. Macklin and others. 1996. Contributions of FOCI research to forecasts of year-class strength of walleye pollock in Shelikof Strait, Alaska. Fisheries Oceanogr., 5, 189-203.

Melsom, A, H. E. Hurlburt, E. J. Metzger, S. D. Meyers and J. J. O'Brien. Submitted. El Niño induced ocean eddies in the Gulf of Alaska. Science.

Merrick, R. L. and D. G. Calkins. In Press. Importance of juvenile walleye pollock in the diet of Gulf of Alaska Steller sea lions. In R. D. Brodeur, P. A. Livingson, T. R. Loughlin and A. B. Hollowed [editors]. Ecology of Juvenile Walleye Pollock. NOAA Tech. Rept.

Merrick, R. L., T. R. Loughlin, and D. G. Calkins. 1987. Decline in abundance of the northern sea lion, Eumetopia jubatus, in Alaska, 1956-86. Fish. Bull. U. S., 85, 351-365.

Miller, A. J., D. R. Cayan, T. P. Barnett, N. E. Graham, and J. M. Oberhuber. 1994a. The 1976-77 climate shift of the Pacific Ocean. Oceanography, 7 (1), 21-26.

Miller, A. J., D. R. Cayan, T. P. Barnett, N. E. Graham, and J. M. Oberhuber. 1994b. Interdecadal variability of the Pacific Ocean: model response to observed heat flux and wind stress anomalies. Clim. Dyn., 9, 287-302.

Miller, C.B. (ed.) 1993. Pelagic ecodynamics in the Gulf of Alaska. Results from the SUPER Program. Prog. in Oceanogr., 32, 1-358.

Miller, C.B., B.W. Frost, P.A Wheeler, M.R. Landry, N. Welschmeyer, and T.M. Powell. 1991. Ecological dynamics in the Subarctic Pacific, a possibly iron-limited ecosystem. Limnol. Oceanogr., 36, 1600-1615.

Muench, R.D. and J.D. Schumacher, 1985. On the Bering Sea ice edge front, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 3185-3197.

Neave, F. and M.G. Hanavan. 1960. Seasonal distribution of some epipelagic fishes in the Gulf of Alaska region. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can., 17, 221-233.

Niebauer, H. J., 1988. Effects of El-Niño-Southern Oscillation and North Pacific weather patterns on interannual variability in the subarctic Bering Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 93, 5051-5068.

Niebauer, H. J., V.A. Alexander and S. Hendricks, 1990. Physical and biological oceanographic interaction in the Spring Bloom at the Bering Sea marginal ice edge zone, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 22229-22242.

Nihoul, J.C.J., E. Deleersnijder, and S. Djenidi. 1989. Modeling the general circulation of shelf seas by 3D k-epsilon models. Earth Sci Rev., 26, 163-189.

Nihoul, J.C.J., P. Adam, P. Brasseur, E. Deleersnijder, S. Djenidi and J. Haus. 1993. Three-dimensional general circulation model of the northern Bering Sea's ecohydrodynamics. Cont. Shelf Res., 13, 509-542.

Odum, E.P. 1971. Fundamentals of Ecology, Third Edition. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, p. 183-188.

Ohtani, K. 1991. To confirm again the characteristics of the Oyashio. Bull. Hokkaido Nat. Fish. Res. Inst., 55, 1-24.

Ohtani, K. and T. Azumaya, 1995. Influence of interannual changes in ocean conditions on the abundance of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) in the eastern Bering Sea, , pp. 87-95, in R. J. Beamish (editor), Climate Change and Northern Fish Populations. Can. Spec. Pub. Fish. Aquatic Sci. 121.

Overland, J. E. and C. H. Pease. 1988. Modeling ice dynamics of coastal seas, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 15619-15637

Overland, J.E. and A.T. Roach, 1987. Northward flow in the Bering And Chukchi seas, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 7097-7105.

Overland, J.E., M.C. Spillane, H.E. Hurlburt and A.J. Wallcraft, 1994. A numerical study of the circulation of the Bering Sea basin and exchange with the North Pacific Ocean, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 736-758.

Parker, K. S., T. S. Royer, and R. B. Deriso. 1995. High-latitude climate forcing and tidal mixing by the 18.6-year lunar nodal cycle and low-frequency recruitment trends in Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis). pp. 449-459 in R. J. Beamish (editor). Climate Change and Northern Fish Populations. Can. Spec. Pub. Fish. Aquatic Sci. 121.

Pearcy, W. G. 1992. Ocean Ecology of North Pacific Salmonids. Univ. Washington Sea Grant Prog. 179p.

Piatt, J. F. and P. Anderson (1995). Response of common murres to the Exxon Valdez oil spill and long-term changes in the Gulf of Alaska marine ecosystem. In Rice et al. (editors) Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Symposium Proceedings, AFS Symp. No. 18.

PICES. 1993. PICES Scientific Report No. 1, Part 2, Subarctic Gyre, B. Hargreaves and T. Sugimoto (eds). North Pacific Marine Science Organization

Quinn, T. J., II, and H. J. Niebauer. 1995. Relation of eastern Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) recruitment to environmental and oceanographic variables. p. 497- 507. In R. J. Beamish (editor) Climate Change and Northern Fish Populations. Can. Spec. Pub. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 121.

Radchenko, V.I. and Ye.I. Sobolevskiy, 1993. Seasonal spatial distribution dynamics of walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma, in the Bering Sea, J. Ichthyology, 33, 63-76.

Reed, R. K., 1995, On geostrophic reference levels in the Bering Sea basin, J. Oceanogr., 52, 489-498.

Reed, R. K., 1984. Flow of the Alaskan Stream and its variations, Deep-Sea Res. ,31, 369-386.

Reed, R. K. and S.J. Bograd, 1995. Transport in Shelikof Strait, Alaska: An update, Cont. Shelf. Res., Cont. Shelf Res., 15, 213-218.

Reed, R. K. and J. D. Schumacher. 1987. Physical Oceanography, p. 57-75 in Hood, D.W., and S. T. Zimmerman (eds), The Gulf of Alaska Physical Environment and Biological Resources. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. 665 pp.

Reed, R. K. and P.J. Stabeno, 1994. Flow along and across the Aleutian Ridge, J. Mar. Res., 52, 639-648.

Reed, R. K. and P.J. Stabeno, 1993. The return of the Alaskan Stream to Near Strait, J. Mar. Res., 51, 515-527.

Reed, R.K., G.V. Khen, P.J. Stabeno and A.V. Verkhunov, 1993. Water properties and flow over the deep Bering Sea basin, summer 1991, Deep-Sea Res., 40, 2325-2334.

Reed, R. K. and J. D. Schumacher, 1981. Sea level variations in relation to coastal flow around the Gulf of Alaska, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 6543-6546.

Reed, R. K., J. D. Schumacher and L. S. Incze. 1987. Circulation in Shelikof Strait, Alaska. J. Phys. Oceanog. 17, 1546-1554.

Roemmich, D. and J. McGowan. 1995. Climatic warming and the decline of zooplankton in the California Current. Science , 267, 1324-1326.

Rogers, D.E. and G.T. Ruggerone. 1993. Factors affecting marine growth of Bristol Bay sockeye. Fish. Res., 18, 89-103.

Royer, T. C.. 1981. Baroclinic transport in the Gulf of Alaska. Part II. Fresh water driven coastal current, J. Mar. Res., 39, 251-266.

Royer, T.C. 1982. Coastal freshwater discharge in the northeast Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 87, 2017-2021.

Royer, T.C. 1989. Upper ocean temperature variability in the Northeast Pacific Ocean: is it an indicator of global warming? Alaska region. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can., 17, 221-233.

Royer, T.C. 1993. High-latitude oceanic variability associated with the 18.6 year nodal tide. J. Geophys. Res., 98, 4639-4644.

Salmon, D. K. 1992. On interannual variability and climate change in the north Pacific. Ph. D. Thesis, Univ. Alaska, U.S.A..

Schumacher, J. D. and P. J. Stabeno, 1996. The continental shelf of the Bering Sea, In: The Sea. Vol. VII, in press.

Schumacher, J. D. and A. W. Kendall, Jr., 1995. Fisheries Oceanography: Walleye Pollock in Alaskan Waters, US National Report to IUGG:1991-1994; Reviews of Geophysics, Suppl., 1153-1163.

Schumacher, J. D. and P. J. Stabeno, 1994. Ubiquitous eddies of the Eastern Bering Sea and their coincidence with concentrations of larval pollock, Fish. Oceanogr., 3, 182-190.

Schumacher, J. D. and R. K. Reed, 1992. Characteristics of currents over the continental slope of the eastern Bering Sea, J. Geophys. Oceanogr., 97, 9423-9433.

Schumacher, J. D. and T.H. Kinder, 1983. Low-frequency current regimes over the Bering Sea shelf, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13, 607-623.

Schumacher, J. D. and R. K. Reed, 1980. Coastal flow in the northwest Gulf of Alaska: the Kenai Current, J. Geophys Res., 85, 6680-6688.

Schumacher, J. D., P. J. Stabeno and S. J. Bograd. 1993. Characteristics of an eddy over a continental shelf: Shelikof Strait, Alaska. J. Geophys. Res., 98, 8395-8404.

Schumacher, J. D., P. J. Stabeno and A. T. Roach, 1989. Volume transport in the Alaska Coastal Current Cont. Shelf Res., 9, 1071-1089.

Semtner, A. J., Jr. And R. M. Chervin. 1992. Ocean general circulation from a global eddy-resolving model. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 5493-5550

Sherman, K., and L. M. Alexander (editors). 1986. Variability and management of large marine ecosystems. AAAS selected symposia series #99. Westview Press, Boulder, CO. 319p.

Shuert, P.G. and J.J. Walsh. 1992. A time-dependent depth- integrated barotropic physical model of the Bering/Chuckchi seas for use in ecosystem analysis. J. Mar. Syst., 3, 141-161.

Spaulding, M., T. Isaji, D. Mendelsohn, and A.C. Turner. 1987. Numerical simulation of wind-driven flow through the Bering Strait. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 17, 1799-1816.

Spaulding, M. L. 1988. Ocean circulation and oil spill trajectory modeling for Alaskan coastal waters. Alaskan OCS Region 1987 Arctic Information Transfer Meeting Conference Proceedings, US Minerals Management Service, pp. 35-38.

Springer, A. M., D. G. Roseneau, D. S. Lloyd, C. P. McRoy, and E. C. Murphy. 1986. Seabird responses to fluctuating prey availability in the Eastern Bering Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 32, 1- 12.

Stabeno, P. J and R.K. Reed, 1994. Circulation in the Bering Sea basin by satellite tracked drifters, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 848-854.

Stabeno, P. J and R.K. Reed, 1992. A major circulation anomaly in the western Bering Sea, Geophys. Res. Letters, 19, 1671-1674.

Stabeno, P. J and R.K. Reed, 1991. Recent Lagrangian measurements along the Alaskan Stream, Deep-Sea Res., 38, 289-296.

Stabeno, P. J, R.K. Reed and J.D. Schumacher, 1995. The Alaska Coastal Current: continuity of transport and forcing, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 2477-2485.

Stabeno, P. J, R.K. Reed and J.E. Overland, 1994. Lagrangian measurements in the Kamchatka Current and Oyashio, J. Oceanography, 50, 653-662.

Taniguchi, A. 1981. Plankton productivities in the Pacific Subarctic Boundary Zone: food conditions of the migrating fishes. Res. Inst. No. Pac. Fish. Hokkaido Univ., Spec. Vol. 23-35.

Thompson, G. G. and H. H. Zenger. 1994. Pacific Cod. In Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation Report for the Groundfish Resources of the Gulf of Alaska as Projected for 1995. North Pacific Fisheries Management Council, P. O. Pox 103136, Anchorage, AK, 99510.

Trenberth, K.E. and J.W. Hurrell. 1994. Decadal atmosphere-ocean variations in the Pacific. Clim. Dyn., 9, 303-319.

UNESCO, 1992. Oceanic Interdecadal Climate Variability, IOC Technical Series 40, 40 pp.

U.S. GLOBEC. 1991a. Initial Science Plan. U.S. GLOBEC Report No. 1, University of California, Davis, CA, 93 pp.

U.S. GLOBEC. 1991b. GLOBEC Workshop on Biotechnology Applications to Field Studies of Zooplankton (L.S. Incze and P.J. Walsh, eds.) . U.S. GLOBEC Rep. 3. University of California, Davis, CA, 29 pp.

U.S. GLOBEC. 1991c. GLOBEC Workshop on Acoustical Technology and the Integration of Acoustical and Optical Sampling Methods (V. Holliday, C. Greene, C. Greenlaw, P. Ortner, R. Pieper, T. Stanton and J. Traynor, eds.). U.S. GLOBEC Rep. 4. Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc., Washington, DC, 58 pp.

U.S. GLOBEC. 1992. Eastern Boundary Current Program, Report on Climate Change and the California Current Ecosystem (D. Mackas, T. Strub and J. Hunter, eds.). U.S. GLOBEC Rep. 7. University of California, Davis, CA, 99 pp.

U.S. GLOBEC. 1993. Optics Technology Workshop Report (H. Batchelder, M. Berman, P. Donaghay and G. Paffenhšfer, eds.). U.S. GLOBEC Rep. 8. University of California, Davis, CA, 18 pp.

U.S. GLOBEC 1994, Eastern Boundary Current Program. A Science plan for the California Current. Report No. 11. University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 134pp.

U.S. GLOBEC News. 1993-present. Published several times a year by the U.S. GLOBEC Scientific Steering Coordinating Office, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

Verkhunov A.V. 1994. Thermohaline characteristics of the shelf fronts in the western Bering Sea. Okeanologiya, 34, 356-369. (in Russian).

Verkhunov, A.V. and Y.Y. Tkachenko. 1992. Recent observations of variability in the Western Bering Sea Current system, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 14369-14378.

Walsh, J.J. And C.P. McRoy. 1986. Ecosystem analysis in the southeastern Bering Sea. Cont. Shelf. Res., 5, 259-288.

Walsh, J.J., C.P. McRoy, L.K. Coachman, J.J. Goering, J.J. Nihoul, T.E. Whitledge, T.H. Blackburn, P.L. Parker, C.D. Wirick, P.G. Shuert, J.M. Grebmeier, A.M. Springer, R.D. Tripp, D.A. Hansell, S. Djenidi, E. Deleersnijder, K. Henriksen, B.A, Lund, P. Andersen, F.E. Muller-Karger, and K. Dean. 1989. Carbon and nitrogen recycling with the Bering/Chukchi Seas: source regions for organic matter effect on AOU demands of the Arctic Ocean, Progress in Oceanography, 22, 277-359.

Walters, R. A. And M. G. G. Foreman. 1992. A 3D finite element model for baroclinic circulation on the Vancouver Island continental shelf. J. Mar. Syst., 3, 507-518.

Welch, D. W., A. I. Chigirinsky, and Y. Ishida. 1995. Upper thermal limits on the oceanic distribution of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the spring. Can. J. Fish. Aq. Sci., 52, 489-503.

Welch, D. W., Y. Ishida, and K. Nagasawa. (in prep.) Thermal limits and ocean migrations of Pacific Salmon: long-term consequences of global warming.

Wyllie-Echeverria, T. 1995. Seasonal sea ice, the cold pool and gadid distribution on the Bering Sea Shelf., PhD Thesis, Univ. Alaska, Fairbanks, 281 pp.

Wyllie-Echeverria, T. 1995. Sea-ice conditions and the distribution of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) on the Bering and Chukchi Sea shelf, pp. 131-136 in R. J. Beamish (editor) Climate Change and Northern Fish Populations. Can. Spec. Pub. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 121.

Wilson, J. G. and J.E. Overland. 1987. Meteorology. pp. 31-54, In: The Gulf of Alaska. Physical Environment and Biological Resources. D.W. Hood and S.T. Zimmerman (eds.) NOAA and MMS.

York, A. E. 1991. Sea surface temperature and their relationship to the survival of juvenile male northern fur seals from the Pribilof Islands. p. 94-106. In: F. Trillmich and K. A. Ono [editors] Pinnipeds and El Niño Response to Environmental Stress. Ecological Studies 88, Springer Verlag, New York. 293p.

Yoshioka, N. and J. H. Yoon. 1992. Numerical simulation of seasonal and interannual variation of the North Pacific Ocean. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 73, 292.